American Chemical Society
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Electrode Reaction Mechanism of Ag2VO2PO4 Cathode

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journal contribution
posted on 2016-05-09, 00:00 authored by Ruibo Zhang, Tesfaye A. Abtew, Nicholas F. Quackenbush, Linda W. Wangoh, Matthew Huie, Alexander B. Brady, David Bock, Harry Efstathiadis, M. Stanley Whittingham, Amy C. Marschilok, Kenneth J. Takeuchi, Esther S. Takeuchi, Peihong Zhang, Louis F. J. Piper
The high capacity of primary lithium-ion cathode Ag2VO2PO4 is facilitated by both displacement and insertion reaction mechanisms. Whether the Ag extrusion (specifically, Ag reduction with Ag metal displaced from the host crystal) and V reduction are sequential or concurrent remains unclear. A microscopic description of the reaction mechanism is required for developing design rules for new multimechanism cathodes, combining both displacement and insertion reactions. However, the amorphization of Ag2VO2PO4 during lithiation makes the investigation of the electrode reaction mechanism difficult with conventional characterization tools. For addressing this issue, a combination of local probes of pair-distribution function and X-ray spectroscopy were used to obtain a description of the discharge reaction. We determine that the initial reaction is dominated by silver extrusion with vanadium playing a supporting role. Once sufficient Ag has been displaced, the residual Ag+ in the host can no longer stabilize the host structure and V–O environment (i.e., onset of amorphization). After amorphization, silver extrusion continues but the vanadium reduction dominates the reaction. As a result, the crossover from primarily silver reduction displacement to vanadium reduction is facilitated by the amorphization that makes vanadium reduction increasingly more favorable.