Size-Controlled Preparation of Microsized Perfluorocarbon Emulsions as Oxygen Carriers via the Shirasu Porous Glass Membrane Emulsification Technique

We have developed microsized perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions with different sizes as artificial oxygen carriers (OCs) via Shirasu porous glass membrane emulsification. Monodispersed PFC emulsions with narrow size distribution were obtained. By changing the membrane pore size, we were able to precisely control the size of emulsions and fabricate emulsions similar in size to human red blood cells. Behaviors of Pluronics with different physiochemical properties (F127, F68, P85, and P103) as surfactants were also investigated, which evidenced that the type and concentration of Pluronics have a major impact on the size of emulsions and the response to different thermal conditions. The F127-stabilized microsized PFC emulsions were stable even during autoclave sterilization. The emulsions were loaded with Ru­(ddp)an oxygen-sensitive probeon their surfaces to indicate oxygen concentration. Finally, incubations with HeLa cells that show fluorescence in response to hypoxia cultured in 2D and 3D suggested promising potential of our emulsions for OCs.