Postprandial Metabolomics Response to Various Cooking Oils in Humans

Lipids account for a high proportion of dietary calories, which greatly affect human health. As a result of differences in composition of fatty acid of individual cooking oils, certain biological effects of these oils may vary. This study aimed to compare postprandial metabolomic profiles of six commonly consumed cooking oils/fats. Adopting a switch-over experimental design (n = 15), we carried out a human feeding study with six groups (control without oils, soybean oil, olive oil, palm oil, camellia oil, and tallow) and collected fasting and postprandial serum samples. The metabolomic profile was measured by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography–quadrupole time of flight. We observed significant differences between the control group and experimental groups for 33 serum metabolites (false discovery rate; p < 0.05), which take part in lipid digestion, fatty acid metabolism, metabolism of pyrimidines and pyrimidine nucleosides, amino acid metabolism, neurobiology, and antioxidation. Sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed distinct metabolomics patterns between monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid oils, between soybean oil, olive oil, and palm oil, and between two MUFA-rich oils (olive and camellia oils). The present metabolomics study suggests shared and distinct metabolisms of various cooking oils/fats.