Discovery of Novel Pyridinopolyamines with Potent Antimicrobial Activity: Deconvolution of Mixtures Synthesized by Solution-Phase Combinatorial Chemistry
1998-02-04T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
A 1638-member pyridinopolyamine library, consisting of 13 sublibraries of 126 members prepared by a solution-phase approach, was completely deconvoluted from orthogonally protected intermediates by a combination of iterative and positional scanning procedures. Antibacterial assays against Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli imp- and a Candida albicans yeast specificity assay were employed to follow the activity of sublibraries. Screening of the 13 sublibraries, which were prepared by a synthetic method that places the differentiating functionality in a selected position A (secondary amine), at the end of the synthesis (fix last), provided several first-round actives. Subsequently, six single pyridinopolyamines (2−7) were prepared where the first-round winner, a hydrogen atom, is in the first deconvoluted position and the remaining three positions contained the same functionalities. The range of antibacterial and yeast activities of these single compounds suggested that a more active and selective compound may be discovered by completely deconvoluting the first-round active sublibraries. Pyridinopolyamine positions B (secondary benzylamine) and C (primary benzylamine) were then sequentially positionally scanned with a set of six meta-substituted benzyl functionalities to generate two sets of second/third-round sublibraries, containing 21 or 36 compounds in each sublibrary, respectively. High-throughput screening yielded sublibraries 15, 18, and 21 with MICs of 1−5 μM against S. pyogenes and E. coli imp-. Using rounds 1 and 2/3 screening data, two sets of single compounds (22−27) and (28−32) with the combination of m-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl group at position C and m-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl or m-methylbenzyl group at position B with position D (primary benzylamine) fixed were synthesized in the fourth round deconvolution. Subsequently, broader screening of deconvoluted compounds against a tier II panel of wild-type bacteria identified eight compounds (5, 7, 27, and 29−32) with approximately 100-fold greater selectivity for Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, S. pyogenes, S. pyogenes (wild-type), Streptomyces aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis were inhibited at MICs of 1−12 μM, whereas MICs for E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were >100 μM. These eight compounds were not active (>100 μM) against fungus C. albicans.