American Chemical Society

State-Specific Coupled-Cluster Methods for Excited States

Posted on 2024-05-15 - 23:46
We reexamine ΔCCSD, a state-specific coupled-cluster (CC) with single and double excitations (CCSD) approach that targets excited states through the utilization of non-Aufbau determinants. This methodology is particularly efficient when dealing with doubly excited states, a domain in which the standard equation-of-motion CCSD (EOM-CCSD) formalism falls short. Our goal here to evaluate the effectiveness of ΔCCSD when applied to other types of excited states, comparing its consistency and accuracy with EOM-CCSD. To this end, we report a benchmark on excitation energies computed with the ΔCCSD and EOM-CCSD methods for a set of molecular excited-state energies that encompasses not only doubly excited states but also doublet–doublet transitions and (singlet and triplet) singly excited states of closed-shell systems. In the latter case, we rely on a minimalist version of multireference CC known as the two-determinant CCSD method to compute the excited states. Our data set, consisting of 276 excited states stemming from the quest database [Véril et al., WIREs Comput. Mol. Sci. 2021, 11, e1517], provides a significant base to draw general conclusions concerning the accuracy of ΔCCSD. Except for the doubly excited states, we found that ΔCCSD underperforms EOM-CCSD. For doublet–doublet transitions, the difference between the mean absolute errors (MAEs) of the two methodologies (of 0.10 and 0.07 eV) is less pronounced than that obtained for singly excited states of closed-shell systems (MAEs of 0.15 and 0.08 eV). This discrepancy is largely attributed to a greater number of excited states in the latter set exhibiting multiconfigurational characters, which are more challenging for ΔCCSD. We also found typically small improvements by employing state-specific optimized orbitals.


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