New Insights into Porcine Milk <i>N</i>‑Glycome and the Potential Relation with Offspring Gut Microbiome

Published on 2019-01-11T18:33:37Z (GMT) by
<i>N</i>-Glycans are an important source of milk oligosaccharides. In addition to free oligosaccharides found in milk, <i>N</i>-glycans can also be utilized by gut microbes. A potential for milk <i>N</i>-glycans to act as gut microbe regulators in suckling animals has attracted considerable attention; however, sow milk <i>N</i>-glycans and their potential effects upon the piglet’s gut microbes <i>in vivo</i> remain unknown. In the present study, we profiled the milk <i>N</i>-glycans of Meishan and Yorkshire sows during lactation using UPLC and a mass spectrometry-based glycome method, and we explored the correlations between milk <i>N</i>-glycans and offspring gut microbiota. Twenty-two <i>N</i>-glycan structures were identified in sow milk, among which 36% (8 out of 22) were fucosylated, 41% (9 out of 22) were sialylated, and 14% (3 out of 22) were high mannosylated. An <i>N</i>-glycan with a NeuGc structure (namely PNO20, GlcNAc<sub>4</sub>-Man<sub>3</sub>-Gal<sub>2</sub>-Fuc-Neu5Gc) was identified in sow milk for the first time. No compositional differences between the two breeds or between different lactation times were found in porcine milk <i>N</i>-linked oligosaccharides (PNOs); however, the abundances of different structures within this class did vary. The relative abundances of fucosylated PNO3 (GlcNAc<sub>4</sub>-Man<sub>3</sub>-Fuc) and sialylated PNO18 (GlcNAc<sub>4</sub>-Man<sub>3</sub>-Gal<sub>2</sub>-NeuAc) increased during lactation, and Meishan sows demonstrated a higher (<i>P</i> < 0.05) abundance of mannosylated PNO10 (GlcNAc<sub>2</sub>-Man<sub>6</sub>) and sialylated PNO17 (GlcNAc<sub>5</sub>-Man<sub>3</sub>-Gal-NeuAc) than Yorkshire sows. Apparent correlations between milk <i>N</i>-glycans and offspring gut microbial populations were found; for example, mannosylated PNO21 (GlcNAc<sub>2</sub>-Man<sub>9</sub>) was positively correlated with OTU706 (<i>Lactobacillus amylovorus</i>) and OTU1380 (<i>Bacteroides uniformis</i>). Overall, our results indicate that the milk <i>N</i>-glycome of Meishan and Yorkshire sows differs in <i>N</i>-glycome characteristics and that this is correlated to abundances of certain piglet gut microbes. These findings provide a reference for future elucidation of the involvement of gut microbes in milk <i>N</i>-glycan metabolism, which is important to the health both of large domestic animals and humans.

Cite this collection

Mu, Chunlong; Cai, Zhipeng; Bian, Gaorui; Du, Yamin; Ma, Shouqing; Su, Yong; et al. (2019): New Insights into

Porcine Milk N‑Glycome

and the Potential Relation with Offspring Gut Microbiome. ACS Publications. Collection.