Mechanistic Studies Inform Design of Improved Ti(salen) Catalysts for Enantioselective [3 + 2] Cycloaddition
Ti(salen) complexes catalyze the asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloaddition of cyclopropyl ketones with alkenes. While high enantioselectivities are achieved with electron-rich alkenes, electron-deficient alkenes are less selective. Herein, we describe mechanistic studies to understand the origins of catalyst and substrate trends in an effort to identify a more general catalyst. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the selectivity determining transition state revealed the origin of stereochemical control to be catalyst distortion, which is largely influenced by the chiral backbone and adamantyl groups on the salicylaldehyde moieties. While substitution of the adamantyl groups was detrimental to the enantioselectivity, mechanistic information guided the development of a set of eight new Ti(salen) catalysts with modified diamine backbones. These catalysts were evaluated with four electron-deficient alkenes to develop a three-parameter statistical model relating enantioselectivity to physical organic parameters. This statistical model is capable of quantitative prediction of enantioselectivity with structurally diverse alkenes. These mechanistic insights assisted the discovery of a new Ti(salen) catalyst, which substantially expanded the reaction scope and significantly improved the enantioselectivity of synthetically interesting building blocks.
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Robinson, Sophia G.; Wu, Xiangyu; Jiang, Binyang; Sigman, Matthew S.; Lin, Song (2020): Mechanistic Studies Inform Design of Improved Ti(salen) Catalysts for Enantioselective [3 + 2] Cycloaddition. ACS Publications. Collection. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c07128