American Chemical Society

Gum Arabic-Derived Hydroxyproline-Rich Peptides Stimulate Intestinal Nonheme Iron Absorption via HIF2α-Dependent Upregulation of Iron Transport Proteins

Posted on 2024-02-13 - 07:29
The stimulation of host iron absorption is a promising antianemia strategy adjunctive/alternative to iron intervention. Here, gum arabic (GA) containing 3.14 ± 0.56% hydroxyproline-rich protein with repetitive X-(Pro/Hyp)n motifs was found to increase iron reduction, uptake, and transport to upregulate duodenal cytochrome b (Dcytb), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin, and hephaestin to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) and to stabilize HIF2α in polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers in a dose-dependent manner, and this was dependent on its protein fraction, rather than the polysaccharide fraction. Three abundant GA-derived hydroxyproline-containing dipeptides of Hyp–Hyp, Pro–Hyp, and Ser–Hyp were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the lysates of polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers at the maximum levels of  0.167 ± 0.021, 0.134 ± 0.017, and 0.089 ± 0.015 μg/mg of protein, respectively, and showed desirable docking affinity energy values of −7.53, – 7.91, and −7.39 kcal/mol, respectively, against human PHD3. GA-derived peptides also acutely increased duodenal HIF2α stability and Dcytb, DMT1, ferroportin, and hephaestin transcription in rats (P < 0.05). Overall, GA-derived hydroxyproline-rich peptides stimulated intestinal iron absorption via PHD inhibition, HIF2α stabilization, and subsequent upregulation of iron transport proteins.


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