pH-Dependent Selective Transfer Hydrogenation of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyls in Aqueous Media Utilizing Half-Sandwich Ruthenium(II) Complexes
2007-01-15T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
Half-sandwich ruthenium(II) PTA complexes bearing the 1,2-dihydropentalenyl (C8H9-, Dp) and indenyl (C9H7-, Ind) ancillary ligands have been synthesized and characterized using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The complexes DpRu(PTA)(PPh3)Cl, DpRu(PTA)2Cl, IndRu(PTA)(PPh3)Cl, and [IndRu(PTA)2(PPh3)]Cl were obtained in good to excellent yields. The solid-state structures of these compounds exhibit piano stool geometries with η5-coordination of the indenyl and dihydropentalenyl moieties. DpRu(PTA)2Cl is water-soluble (S25°C = 43 mg/mL), while the mixed phosphine compounds are slightly soluble in acidic solutions. The Ru−H complexes, Cp‘Ru(PTA)(PPh3)H (Cp‘ = Ind, Cp), have been synthesized in good yield and spectroscopically and structurally characterized. The ruthenium hydrides undergo an H/D exchange reaction with CD3OD with relative rates CpRu(PTA)(PPh3)H ≫ IndRu(PTA)(PPh3)H > CpRu(PTA)2H. The air-stable Cp‘Ru(PTA)(PR3)Cl complexes (Cp‘ = Cp, Dp, Ind; PR3 = PPh3 or PTA) exhibit activity in the regioselective transfer hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls in aqueous media with HCOONa, HCOOH, or isopropanol/Na2CO3 serving as the hydrogen source. They were found to be effective in the selective reduction of the carbonyl functionality of cinnamaldehyde and the CC bond of benzylidene acetone and chalcone. IndRu(PTA)(PPh3)Cl was less active than Cp‘Ru(PTA)(PPh3)Cl (Cp‘ = Cp or Dp). Results of the transfer hydrogenation of unsaturated substrates using CpRu(PTA)(PPh3)H are also reported.