American Chemical Society
nn3c02138_si_003.mp4 (9 MB)

In Situ Atomic-Scale Deciphering of Multiple Dynamic Phase Transformations and Reversible Sodium Storage in Ternary Metal Sulfide Anode

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posted on 2023-06-16, 15:14 authored by Ruining Fu, Jianhai Pan, Mingyuan Wang, Huihua Min, Hanghang Dong, Ran Cai, Zhefei Sun, Yuwei Xiong, Fuhan Cui, Shuang-Ying Lei, Shuangqiang Chen, Jing Chen, Litao Sun, Qiaobao Zhang, Feng Xu
Ternary metal sulfides (TMSs), endowed with the synergistic effect of their respective binary counterparts, hold great promise as anode candidates for boosting sodium storage performance. Their fundamental sodium storage mechanisms associated with dynamic structural evolution and reaction kinetics, however, have not been fully comprehended. To enhance the electrochemical performance of TMS anodes in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), it is of critical importance to gain a better mechanistic understanding of their dynamic electrochemical processes during live (de)sodiation cycling. Herein, taking BiSbS3 anode as a representative paradigm, its real-time sodium storage mechanisms down to the atomic scale during the (de)sodiation cycling are systematically elucidated through in situ transmission electron microscopy. Previously unexplored multiple phase transformations involving intercalation, two-step conversion, and two-step alloying reactions are explicitly revealed during sodiation, in which newly formed Na2BiSbS4 and Na2BiSb are respectively identified as intermediate phases of the conversion and alloying reactions. Impressively, the final sodiation products of Na6BiSb and Na2S can recover to the original BiSbS3 phase upon desodiation, and afterward, a reversible phase transformation can be established between BiSbS3 and Na6BiSb, where the BiSb as an individual phase (rather than respective Bi and Sb phases) participates in reactions. These findings are further verified by operando X-ray diffraction, density functional theory calculations, and electrochemical tests. Our work provides valuable insights into the mechanistic understanding of sodium storage mechanisms in TMS anodes and important implications for their performance optimization toward high-performance SIBs.