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# When Bubbles Are Not Spherical: Artificial Intelligence Analysis of Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubbles in Solutions of Varying Concentrations

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posted on 2022-04-18, 16:07 authored by Ilya Korolev, Timur A. Aliev, Tetiana Orlova, Sviatlana A. Ulasevich, Michael Nosonovsky, Ekaterina V. SkorbUltrasonic
irradiation of liquids, such as water–alcohol
solutions, results in cavitation or the formation of small bubbles.
Cavitation bubbles are generated in real solutions without the use
of optical traps making our system as close to real conditions as
possible. Under the action of the ultrasound, bubbles can grow, oscillate,
and eventually collapse or decompose. We apply the mathematical method
of separation of motions to interpret the acoustic effect on the bubbles.
While in most situations, the spherical shape of a bubble is the most
energetically profitable as it minimizes the surface energy, when
the acoustic frequency is in resonance with the natural frequency
of the bubble, shapes with the dihedral symmetry emerge. Some of these
resonance shapes turn unstable, so the bubble decomposes. It turns
out that bubbles in the solutions of different concentrations (with
different surface energies and densities) attain different evolution
paths. While it is difficult to obtain a deterministic description
of how the solution concentration affects bubble dynamics, it is possible
to separate images with different concentrations by applying the artificial
neural network (ANN) algorithm. An ANN was trained to detect the concentration
of alcohol in a water solution based on the bubble images. This indicates
that artificial intelligence (AI) methods can complement deterministic
analysis in nonequilibrium, near-unstable situations.

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water solution basedoptical traps makingdihedral symmetry emergeartificial neural networkcomplement deterministic analysisartificial intelligence analysisdifferent surface energiesreal solutions withoutultrasonic cavitation bubblesartificial intelligencesurface energyreal conditionsdifferent concentrationsdeterministic descriptionsmall bubblesseparate imagesnatural frequencymathematical methodeventually collapseenergetically profitablecavitation bubblesacoustic frequencyacoustic effect

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