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Real-Time Dissection of Distinct Dynamin-Dependent Endocytic Routes of Influenza A Virus by Quantum Dot-Based Single-Virus Tracking

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posted on 29.03.2017, 00:00 by En-Ze Sun, An-An Liu, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Shu-Lin Liu, Zhi-Quan Tian, Dai-Wen Pang
Entry is the first critical step for the infection of influenza A virus and of great significance for the research and development of antiflu drugs. Influenza A virus depends on exploitation of cellular endocytosis to enter its host cells, and its entry behaviors in distinct routes still need further investigation. With the aid of a single-virus tracking technique and quantum dots, we have realized real-time and multicolor visualization of the endocytic process of individual viruses and comprehensive dissection of two distinct dynamin-dependent endocytic pathways of influenza A virus, either dependent on clathrin or not. Based on the sequential progression of protein recruitment and viral motility, we have revealed the asynchronization in the recruitments of clathrin and dynamin during clathrin-dependent entry of the virus, with a large population of events for short-lived recruitments of these two proteins being abortive. In addition, the differentiated durations of dynamin recruitment and responses to inhibitors in these two routes have evidenced somewhat different roles of dynamin. Besides promoting membrane fission in both entry routes, dynamin also participates in the maturation of a clathrin-coated pit in the clathrin-dependent route. Collectively, the current study displays a dynamic and precise image of the entry process of influenza A virus and elucidates the mechanisms of distinct entry routes. This quantum dot-based single-virus tracking technique is proven to be well-suited for investigating the choreographed interactions between virus and cellular proteins.