American Chemical Society
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Platelet-Inspired Intravenous Nanomedicine for Injury-Targeted Direct Delivery of Thrombin to Augment Hemostasis in Coagulopathies

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posted on 2022-08-02, 13:07 authored by Aditya Girish, Ketan Jolly, Nijmeh Alsaadi, Maria de la Fuente, Arielle Recchione, Ran An, Dante Disharoon, Zachary Secunda, Shruti Raghunathan, Norman F Luc, Cian Desai, Elizabeth Knauss, Xu Han, Keren Hu, Hanyang Wang, Ujjal Didar Singh Sekhon, Nathan Rohner, Umut A Gurkan, Marvin Nieman, Matthew D. Neal, Anirban Sen Gupta
Severe hemorrhage associated with trauma, surgery, and congenital or drug-induced coagulopathies can be life-threatening and requires rapid hemostatic management via topical, intracavitary, or intravenous routes. For injuries that are not easily accessible externally, intravenous hemostatic approaches are needed. The clinical gold standard for this is transfusion of blood products, but due to donor dependence, specialized storage requirements, high risk of contamination, and short shelf life, blood product use faces significant challenges. Consequently, recent research efforts are being focused on designing biosynthetic intravenous hemostats, using intravenous nanoparticles and polymer systems. Here we report on the design and evaluation of thrombin-loaded injury-site-targeted lipid nanoparticles (t-TLNPs) that can specifically localize at an injury site via platelet-mimetic anchorage to the von Willebrand factor (vWF) and collagen and directly release thrombin via diffusion and phospholipase-triggered particle destabilization, which can locally augment fibrin generation from fibrinogen for hemostatic action. We evaluated t-TLNPs in vitro in human blood and plasma, where hemostatic defects were created by platelet depletion and anticoagulation. Spectrophotometric studies of fibrin generation, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM)-based studies of clot viscoelasticity, and BioFlux-based real-time imaging of fibrin generation under simulated vascular flow conditions confirmed that t-TLNPs can restore fibrin in hemostatic dysfunction settings. Finally, the in vivo feasibility of t-TLNPs was tested by prophylactic administration in a tail-clip model and emergency administration in a liver-laceration model in mice with induced hemostatic defects. Treatment with t-TLNPs was able to significantly reduce bleeding in both models. Our studies demonstrate an intravenous nanomedicine approach for injury-site-targeted direct delivery of thrombin to augment hemostasis.