Nonvasoconstrictive Hemoglobin Particles as Oxygen Carriers
mediaposted on 18.02.2016 by Yu Xiong, Zhi Zhao Liu, Radostina Georgieva, Kathrin Smuda, Axel Steffen, Mauricio Sendeski, Andreas Voigt, Andreas Patzak, Hans Bäumler
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Artificial oxygen carriers, favorably hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), are being investigated intensively during the last 30 years with the aim to develop a universal blood substitute. However, serious side effects mainly caused by vasoconstriction triggered by nitric oxide (NO) scavenging due to penetration of nanosized HBOCs through the endothelial gaps of the capillary walls and/or oxygen oversupply in the precapillary arterioles due to their low oxygen affinity led to failure of clinical trials and FDA disapproval. To avoid these effects, HBOCs with a size between 100 and 1000 nm and high oxygen affinity are needed. Here we present for the first time unique hemoglobin particles (HbPs) of around 700 nm with high oxygen affinity and low immunogenicity using a novel, highly effective, and simple technique. The fabrication procedure provides particles with a narrow size distribution and nearly uniform morphology. The content of hemoglobin (Hb) in the particles corresponded to 80% of the Hb content in native erythrocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate a successful perfusion of isolated mouse glomeruli with concentrated HbP suspensions in vitro. A normal, nonvasoconstrictive behavior of the afferent arterioles is observed, suggesting no oxygen oversupply and limited NO scavenging by these particles, making them a highly promising blood substitute.