American Chemical Society
ja7b09531_si_004.avi (3.86 MB)

Interfacial Chemistry in Solid-State Batteries: Formation of Interphase and Its Consequences

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posted on 2017-12-18, 00:00 authored by Shaofei Wang, Henghui Xu, Wangda Li, Andrei Dolocan, Arumugam Manthiram
Benefiting from extremely high shear modulus and high ionic transference number, solid electrolytes are promising candidates to address both the dendrite-growth and electrolyte-consumption problems inherent to the widely adopted liquid-phase electrolyte batteries. However, solid electrolyte/electrode interfaces present high resistance and complicated morphology, hampering the development of solid-state battery systems, while requiring advanced analysis for rational improvement. Here, we employ an ultrasensitive three-dimensional (3D) chemical analysis to uncover the dynamic formation of interphases at the solid electrolyte/electrode interface. While the formation of interphases widens the electrochemical window, their electronic and ionic conductivities determine the electrochemical performance and have a large influence on dendrite growth. Our results suggest that, contrary to the general understanding, highly stable solid electrolytes with metal anodes in fact promote fast dendritic formation, as a result of less Li consumption and much larger curvature of dendrite tips that leads to an enhanced electric driving force. Detailed thermodynamic analysis shows an interphase with low electronic conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and chemical stability, yet having a dynamic thickness and uniform coverage is needed to prevent dendrite growth. This work provides a paradigm for interphase design to address the dendrite challenge, paving the way for the development of robust, fully operational solid-state batteries.