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Insight into the Nucleotide Based Modulation of the Grp94 Molecular Chaperone Using Multiscale Dynamics

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posted on 2023-06-09, 20:30 authored by John Paul Alao, Ikponwmosa Obaseki, Yaa Sarfowah Amankwah, Quinn Nguyen, Meghana Sugoor, Erin Unruh, Hannah Oluwaseun Popoola, Riina Tehver, Andrea N. Kravats
Grp94, an ER-localized molecular chaperone, is required for the folding and activation of many membrane and secretory proteins. Client activation by Grp94 is mediated by nucleotide and conformational changes. In this work, we aim to understand how microscopic changes from nucleotide hydrolysis can potentiate large-scale conformational changes of Grp94. We performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on the ATP-hydrolysis competent state of the Grp94 dimer in four different nucleotide bound states. We found that Grp94 was the most rigid when ATP was bound. ATP hydrolysis or nucleotide removal enhanced mobility of the N-terminal domain and ATP lid, resulting in suppression of interdomain communication. In an asymmetric conformation with one hydrolyzed nucleotide, we identified a more compact state, similar to experimental observations. We also identified a potential regulatory role of the flexible linker, as it formed electrostatic interactions with the Grp94 M-domain helix near the region where BiP is known to bind. These studies were complemented with normal-mode analysis of an elastic network model to investigate Grp94’s large-scale conformational changes. SPM analysis identified residues that are important in signaling conformational change, many of which have known functional relevance in ATP coordination and catalysis, client binding, and BiP binding. Our findings suggest that ATP hydrolysis in Grp94 alters allosteric wiring and facilitates conformational changes.

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