American Chemical Society
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Imaging Quantum Interference in Stadium-Shaped Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene Quantum Dots

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posted on 2021-10-26, 17:51 authored by Zhehao Ge, Dillon Wong, Juwon Lee, Frederic Joucken, Eberth A. Quezada-Lopez, Salman Kahn, Hsin-Zon Tsai, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Feng Wang, Alex Zettl, Michael F. Crommie, Jairo Velasco
Experimental realizations of graphene-based stadium-shaped quantum dots (QDs) have been few and have been incompatible with scanned probe microscopy. Yet, the direct visualization of electronic states within these QDs is crucial for determining the existence of quantum chaos in these systems. We report the fabrication and characterization of electrostatically defined stadium-shaped QDs in heterostructure devices composed of monolayer graphene (MLG) and bilayer graphene (BLG). To realize a stadium-shaped QD, we utilized the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope to charge defects in a supporting hexagonal boron nitride flake. The stadium states visualized are consistent with tight-binding-based simulations but lack clear quantum chaos signatures. The absence of quantum chaos features in MLG-based stadium QDs is attributed to the leaky nature of the confinement potential due to Klein tunneling. In contrast, for BLG-based stadium QDs (which have stronger confinement) quantum chaos is precluded by the smooth confinement potential which reduces interference and mixing between states.