am3c15291_si_003.mp4 (45.12 MB)
Ibuprofen-Immobilized Thin Films: A Novel Approach to Improve the Clearance of Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins
mediaposted on 2024-01-29, 09:03 authored by Flávia S. C. Rodrigues, Dialina Brilhante, Ana Macêdo, Rita F. Pires, Mónica Faria
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a pressing global health issue, affects millions and leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemodialysis (HD) is a crucial treatment for ESRD, yet its limited efficiency in removing protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) results in high morbidity and mortality rates. A high affinity of pharmaceutical drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) can be leveraged to compete effectively with PBUTs for the same HSA binding sites, thereby enabling them to be capable of displacing these toxins. One such drug is ibuprofen (IBF), known for its very high affinity for HSA and sharing the same binding site as indoxyl sulfate (IS). This study explores the development of IBF-immobilized cellulose acetate-based (CA-based) thin films. The films were created by reacting CA with IBF-modified silica precursors at varying concentrations. The presence of IBF in CA/TEOS/APTES-IBF-3 and CA/TEOS-IBF-25 films, containing 3 and 25 wt % IBF, respectively, was confirmed through 1H NMR spectra. Competitive displacement binding assays indicated that while the incorporation of 3 wt % IBF showed no significant enhancement in IS displacement, the 25 wt % IBF film increased the dialyzed IS by 1.3 when normalized to non-IBF films. Furthermore, there was a 1.2-fold decrease in the total percentage of IS, and the free percentage of IS increased 1.3 to 3.0 times. Although direct systemic infusion of IBF in HD patients achieves a 2.4 times higher removal of IS, it is impractical due to the risks it poses to ESRD patients. The IBF-immobilized films offer the advantage of localized binding, thus eliminating the need for systemic exposure. This innovative approach lays a foundation for developing more efficient HD membranes, aiming to address the challenging issue of PBUT elimination and potentially enhance the quality of life and treatment outcomes for ESRD patients.
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