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Gold Nanoparticle Flow Sensors Designed for Dynamic X-ray Imaging in Biofluids

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posted on 27.07.2010, 00:00 by Sungsook Ahn, Sung Yong Jung, Jin Pyung Lee, Hae Koo Kim, Sang Joon Lee
X-ray-based imaging is one of the most powerful and convenient methods in terms of versatility in applicable energy and high performance in use. Different from conventional nuclear medicine imaging, contrast agents are required in X-ray imaging especially for effectively targeted and molecularly specific functions. Here, in contrast to much reported static accumulation of the contrast agents in targeted organs, dynamic visualization in a living organism is successfully accomplished by the particle-traced X-ray imaging for the first time. Flow phenomena across perforated end walls of xylem vessels in rice are monitored by a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) (∼20 nm in diameter) as a flow tracing sensor working in nontransparent biofluids. AuNPs are surface-modified to control the hydrodynamic properties such as hydrodynamic size (DH), ζ-potential, and surface plasmonic properties in aqueous conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray nanoscopy (XN), and X-ray microscopy (XM) are used to correlate the interparticle interactions with X-ray absorption ability. Cluster formation and X-ray contrast ability of the AuNPs are successfully modulated by controlling the interparticle interactions evaluated as flow-tracing sensors.