Effects of Substrate Heating and Wettability on Evaporation Dynamics and Deposition Patterns for a Sessile Water Droplet Containing Colloidal Particles
mediaposted on 2016-10-19, 00:00 authored by Nagesh D. Patil, Prathamesh G. Bange, Rajneesh Bhardwaj, Atul Sharma
Effects of substrate temperature, substrate wettability, and particle concentration are experimentally investigated for evaporation of a sessile water droplet containing colloidal particles. Time-varying droplet shapes and temperature of the liquid–gas interface are measured using high-speed visualization and infrared thermography, respectively. The motion of the particles inside the evaporating droplet is qualitatively visualized by an optical microscope and the profile of the final particle deposit is measured by an optical profilometer. On a nonheated hydrophilic substrate, a ring-like deposit forms after the evaporation, as reported extensively in the literature, while on a heated hydrophilic substrate, a thinner ring with an inner deposit is reported in the present work. The latter is attributed to Marangoni convection, and recorded motion of the particles as well as measured temperature gradient across the liquid–gas interface confirms this hypothesis. The thinning of the ring scales with the substrate temperature and is reasoned to stronger Marangoni convection at larger substrate temperature. In the case of a nonheated hydrophobic substrate, an inner deposit forms due to very early depinning of the contact line. On the other hand, in the case of a heated hydrophobic substrate, the substrate heating as well as larger particle concentration helps in the pinning of the contact line, which results in a thin ring with an inner deposit. We propose a regime map for predicting three types of depositsnamely, ring, thin ring with inner deposit, and inner depositfor varying substrate temperature, substrate wettability, and particle concentration. A first-order model corroborates the liquid–gas interface temperature measurements and variation in the measured ring profile with the substrate temperature.