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Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons

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posted on 18.05.2016, 00:00 by Paul Masih Das, Gopinath Danda, Andrew Cupo, William M. Parkin, Liangbo Liang, Neerav Kharche, Xi Ling, Shengxi Huang, Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Vincent Meunier, Marija Drndić
Black phosphorus (BP) is a highly anisotropic allotrope of phosphorus with great promise for fast functional electronics and optoelectronics. We demonstrate the controlled structural modification of few-layer BP along arbitrary crystal directions with sub-nanometer precision for the formation of few-nanometer-wide armchair and zigzag BP nanoribbons. Nanoribbons are fabricated, along with nanopores and nanogaps, using a combination of mechanical–liquid exfoliation and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM nanosculpting. We predict that the few-nanometer-wide BP nanoribbons realized experimentally possess clear one-dimensional quantum confinement, even when the systems are made up of a few layers. The demonstration of this procedure is key for the development of BP-based electronics, optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, and other applications in reduced dimensions.