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s‑Block Metal Base-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sterically Encumbered Derivatives of Ethane-1,2-diyl-bis(diphenylphosphane oxide) (dppeO2)

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posted on 2024-04-24, 10:31 authored by Benjamin E. Fener, Philipp Schüler, Felix E. Pröhl, Helmar Görls, Phil Liebing, Matthias Westerhausen
The synthesis of ethane-1,2-diyl-bis(diarylphosphane oxides) and -phosphanes, containing bulky ortho-substituted P-bound aryl groups, poses severe challenges, such as drastic reaction conditions and low yields. A potassium base-mediated hydrophosphorylation of phenylacetylene with dimesitylphosphane oxide (Mes2P(O)H) yields an E/Z mixture of alkenyl-dimesitylphosphane oxide. The bulky mesityl group hampers the addition of a second diarylphosphane oxide. Contrary to this expected addition of a phosphane oxide across an alkyne yielding an alkenylphosphane oxide, the potassium base-mediated reaction of trimethylsilyl acetylene with Mes2P(O)H yields ethane-1,2-diyl-bis(dimesitylphosphane oxide) (2b); surprisingly, the TMS group is substituted by a hydrogen atom via a rather complex reaction mechanism. Excess TMS-CCH (5 equiv), ethereal solvents, soft alkali metal catalysts, and large catalyst loadings of 30 mol % are highly beneficial. Furthermore, at least one ortho-position must be alkylated, whereas very bulky aryl groups pose no obstacle. Di(n-alkyl)phosphane oxides and diphenylphosphane oxide do not show the described conversion but react completely different. Alternatively, ethane-1,2-diyl-bis(diarylphosphane oxides) are accessible via a metathetical approach of calcium acetylide CaC2 with diarylphosphane oxide in a superbasic solvent. Reduction of these phosphane oxides (2) to phosphanes (3) offers a library of bulky bidentate ligands for coordination chemistry at hard (e.g., Y3+) and soft metal ions (e.g., Pd2+).

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