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iEDDA Reaction of the Molecular Iodine-Catalyzed Synthesis of 1,3,5-Triazines via Functionalization of the sp3 C–H Bond of Acetophenones with Amidines: An Experimental Investigation and DFT Study

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journal contribution
posted on 17.11.2017, 00:00 by Abhishek R. Tiwari, Shilpa R. Nath, Kaustubh A. Joshi, Bhalchandra M. Bhanage
The present work reports an inverse electron demand Diels–Alder (iEDDA)-type reaction to synthesize 1,3,5-trizines from acetophenones and amidines. The use of molecular iodine in a catalytic amount facilitates the functionalization of the sp3 C–H bond of acetophenones. This is a simple and efficient methodology for the synthesis of 1,3,5-triazines in good to excellent yields under transition-metal-free and peroxide-free conditions. The reaction is believed to take place via an in situ iodination-based oxidative elimination of formaldehyde. DFT calculations at the M062X/6-31+G­(d,p) level were employed to investigate the reaction mechanism. Reaction barriers for the cycloaddition as well as a formaldehyde expulsion steps were computed, and a multistep mechanism starting with the nucleophilic attack by benzamidine on an in situ generated imine intermediate has been proposed. Both local and global reactivity descriptors were used to study the regioselectivity of the addition steps.