Zr-Catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Allylic Ethers and Mo-Catalyzed Chromene Formation in Synthesis. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of the Antihypertensive Agent (S,R,R,R)-Nebivolol
journal contributionposted on 06.08.1998, 00:00 by Charles W. Johannes, Michael S. Visser, Gabriel S. Weatherhead, Amir H. Hoveyda
The first enantioselective total synthesis of the antihypertensive agent (S,R,R,R)-nebivolol (3) is described. The synthesis includes the efficient (EBTHI)Zr-catalyzed kinetic resolutions of cycloheptenyl styrenyl ethers 8 and 16, which are subsequently treated with 4 mol % Mo(CHCMe2Ph)(N(2,6-(i-Pr)2C6H3))(OCMe(CF3)2)2 to afford chiral nonracemic 2-substituted chromenes (R,R)-9 and (S,R)-17. Since the present retrosynthetic analysis dissects the molecule into two chromene fragments, both the (R) and (S) antipodes of (EBTHI)Zr catalyst are required. Accordingly, Buchwald's efficient resolution process is used to resolve rac-(EBTHI)ZrCl2 (from catalytic hydrogenation of commercially available rac-(EBI)ZrCl2), such that the two requisite transition metal chiral catalysts are obtained by a single process. Other noteworthy features of the synthesis include a highly efficient, regio- and stereoselective Pd-catalyzed opening of cyclic allylic epoxide 7 with diaryloxystannane 15 and a photochemical modification of the C2 chromane side chain (e.g., 10 → 11).