Zinc Bioavailability from Phytate-Rich Foods and Zinc Supplements. Modeling the Effects of Food Components with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Donor Ligands
journal contributionposted on 2017-09-14, 00:00 authored by Ning Tang, Leif H. Skibsted
Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (Ksp = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10–47 mol7/L7), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ΔHdis of −301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ΔSdis of −1901 ± 72 J/(mol K). Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor, and sulfur donor ligands. The driving force for the enhanced solubility is mainly due to the complex formation between zinc and the investigated food components rather than ligand exchange and ternary complex formation as revealed by quantum mechanical calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry. Histidine and citrate are promising ligands for improving zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods.