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ZIF‑8 Metal–Organic Framework Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Protein–Protein Interaction

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journal contribution
posted on 10.02.2021, 20:44 by Luciana D. Trino, Luiz G. S. Albano, Daniela C. Granato, Aline G. Santana, Davi H. S. de Camargo, Catia C. Correa, Carlos C. Bof Bufon, Adriana F. Paes Leme
In this study, a novel label-free electrochemical biosensor based on the zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-8) was developed for monitoring protein–protein interactions (PPIs). ZIF-8 was deposited on interdigitated electrodes and employed as a transducing material and simultaneously carried the thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) protein, followed by the deposition of increased concentrations of the cytoplasmic domain of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17cyto) known as the Trx-1 binding partner. Structural and morphological characterizations were used to validate and verify the formation of ZIF-8. The ZIF-8 crystals showed a rhombic dodecahedral structure with mainly exposed (011) facets, a mean particle size of 205 (±22) nm, and a ZIF-8 film thickness around 61 (±6) nm. The interaction between Trx-1 and ADAM17cyto proteins was analyzed through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicate a linear and inverse relationship between the impedance responses at 0.1 Hz for ADAM17cyto concentrations from 50 nM to 8 μM, with a coefficient of variation from 1.0% to 11.4%. The proposed biosensor also displayed a significant selectivity and stability verified by using ADAM17cyto mutant and BSA as controls. As a proof-of-concept, we compared the results with a widely used type of PPI assay based on antibody recognition, the solid-phase binding assay, using the same proteins. The solid-phase binding assay was able to detect a significant binding only in ADAM17cyto concentrations above 0.5 μM, with a coefficient of variation varying from 5.4% to 27.5%. The results demonstrate that the developed biosensor was 10× more sensitive and reproducible than the conventional solid-phase binding assay. Furthermore, the developed electrochemical biosensor based on ZIF-8 provides a faster, label-free, and low-cost detection analysis, representing a novel strategy in detecting PPIs.