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Vapor-Phase Formation of a Hole-Transporting Thiophene Polymer Layer for Evaporated Perovskite Solar Cells

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journal contribution
posted on 23.01.2020, 20:33 by Koki Suwa, Ludmila Cojocaru, Karl Wienands, Clarissa Hofmann, Patricia S. C. Schulze, Alexander J. Bett, Kristina Winkler, Jan Christoph Goldschmidt, Stefan W. Glunz, Hiroyuki Nishide
Homogeneous layer formation on textured silicon substrates is essential for the fabrication of highly efficient monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells. From all well-known techniques for the fabrication of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the evaporation method offers the highest degree of freedom for layer-by-layer deposition independent of the substrate’s roughness or texturing. Hole-transporting polymers with high hole mobility and structural stability have been used as effective hole-transporting materials (HTMs) of PSCs. However, the strong intermolecular interactions of the polymers do not allow for a layer formation via the evaporation method, which is a big challenge for the perovskite community. Herein, we first applied a hole-transporting terthiophene polymer (PTTh) as an HTM for evaporated PSCs via an in situ vapor-phase polymerization using iodine (I2) as a sublimable oxidative agent. PTTh showed high hole mobility of 1.2 × 10–3 cm2/(V s) and appropriate energy levels as HTM in PSCs (EHOMO = −5.3 eV and ELUMO = −3.3 eV). The PSCs with the in situ vapor-phase polymerized PTTh hole-transporting layer and a co-evaporated perovskite layer exhibited a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5.9%, as a proof of concept, and high cell stability over time. Additionally, the polymer layer could fully cover the pyramidal structure of textured silicon substrates and was identified as an effective hole-transporting material for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells by optical simulation.

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