Validated UPLC-MS/MS Methods To Quantitate Free and Conjugated Alternaria Toxins in Commercially Available Tomato Products and Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Belgium
journal contributionposted on 15.05.2016, 00:00 by Jeroen Walravens, Hannes Mikula, Michael Rychlik, Stefan Asam, Tom Devos, Emmanuel Njumbe Ediage, José Diana Di Mavungu, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Anita Van Landschoot, Lynn Vanhaecke, Sarah De Saeger
Ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe based analytical methodologies to quantitate both free (alternariol (1), alternariol monomethyl ether (2), tenuazonic acid (3), tentoxin (4), altenuene (5), altertoxin-I (6)) and conjugated (sulfates and glucosides of 1 and 2) Alternaria toxins in fruit and vegetable juices and tomato products were developed and validated. Acceptable limits of quantitation (0.7–5.7 μg/kg), repeatability (RSDr < 15.7%), reproducibility (RSDR < 17.9%), and apparent recovery (87.0–110.6%) were obtained for all analytes in all matrices investigated. 129 commercial foodstuffs were analyzed, and 3 was detected in 100% of tomato product samples (1, 2, 4, and 5 were also frequently detected (21–86%, Alternaria toxins (sulfates of 1 and 2) were repeatedly detected. A deterministic dietary exposure assessment revealed the possible risk for human health related to the presence of 1 and 2 in tomato based foodstuffs, whereas 3 is unlikely to be of human health concern.