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Urinary Pyrethroid and Chlorpyrifos Metabolite Concentrations in Northern California Families and Their Relationship to Indoor Residential Insecticide Levels, Part of the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behavior (SUPERB)

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journal contribution
posted on 04.02.2014, 00:00 by Kelly J. Trunnelle, Deborah H. Bennett, Nicolle S. Tulve, Matthew Scott Clifton, Mark D. Davis, Antonia M. Calafat, Rebecca Moran, Daniel J. Tancredi, Irva Hertz-Picciotto
Since the 2001 U.S. federally mandated phase-out of residential uses of organophosphates (OPs), use of and potential for human exposure to pyrethroids in the indoor residential environment has increased. We report concentrations of common pyrethroids, pyrethroid metabolites, and chlorpyrifos in floor wipes, and urinary concentrations of pyrethroid metabolites and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in samples collected in 2007–2009 from 90 northern California families as part of the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behavior (SUPERB). Correlation and regression analyses examined associations between floor wipe and urine sample concentrations. The most frequently detected urinary metabolites were TCPy (64.7%, median concentration of 1.47 ng/mL) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) (62.4%, 0.79 ng/mL). Compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 general U.S. population, this population had substantially higher pyrethroid metabolite and lower TCPy urinary concentrations. This may be related to the increased residential use of pyrethroids after the phase-out of OPs. Chlorpyrifos (98.7%), cis- and trans-permethrin (97.5%), bifenthrin (59.3%), and 3PBA (98.7%) were frequently detected in the floor wipes. Floor wipe concentrations for pyrethroid insecticides were found to be significant predictors of child creatinine-adjusted urinary metabolite concentrations (log–log regression coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.29; p < 0.05) suggesting that indoor residential exposure to pyrethroid insecticides is an important exposure route for children.