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Uniform Huygens Metasurfaces with Postfabrication Phase Pattern Recording Functionality

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-18, 18:03 authored by Elena Mikheeva, Remi Colom, Patrice Genevet, Frederic Bedu, Igor Ozerov, Samira Khadir, Guillaume Baffou, Redha Abdeddaim, Stefan Enoch, Julien Lumeau
With the rapid progress in the field of metasurfaces and their use in miniature integrated devices arises the quest for cheap mass production of efficient metasurfaces. We suggest a novel way to design and fabricate phase-gradient Huygens metasurfaces using laser-annealing of uniform particles made of As2S3 chalcogenide glass. We show that a phase gradient metasurface can be realized by tuning the refractive index of otherwise identical meta-atoms instead of tuning their geometry. We are using an array of identical As2S3 particles with the possibility to locally change their refractive index using a short-wavelength illumination (green laser) in order to tune the phase pattern at the postfabrication stage. Metasurfaces fabricated with this method can be used for operation in the red or IR spectral range. We fabricate uniform As2S3 Huygens metasurfaces using electron beam lithography and demonstrate their postfabrication tuning with exposure of comparatively low intensity. Sample characterizations with transmittance measurements and quantitative phase microscopy provide results in good correspondence with numerical predictions confirming postfabrication spectral tuning. Using such tuning, we demonstrate the possibility of transferring the intensity pattern produced by modifying a writing beam with a spatial light modulator to a phase pattern recorded on a uniform As2S3 metasurface. Our method has potential advantages for the low-cost production of large-scale metasurfaces because uniform geometries are better adjusted for mass manufacturing.