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Type II Kinase Inhibitors Targeting Cys-Gatekeeper Kinases Display Orthogonality with Wild Type and Ala/Gly-Gatekeeper Kinases

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journal contribution
posted on 21.09.2018, 00:00 by Cory A. Ocasio, Alexander A. Warkentin, Patrick J. McIntyre, Krister J. Barkovich, Clare Vesely, John Spencer, Kevan M. Shokat, Richard Bayliss
Analogue-sensitive (AS) kinases contain large to small mutations in the gatekeeper position rendering them susceptible to inhibition with bulky analogues of pyrazolopyrimidine-based Src kinase inhibitors (e.g., PP1). This “bump-hole” method has been utilized for at least 85 of ∼520 kinases, but many kinases are intolerant to this approach. To expand the scope of AS kinase technology, we designed type II kinase inhibitors, ASDO2/6 (analogue-sensitive “DFG-out” kinase inhibitors 2 and 6), that target the “DFG-out” conformation of Cys-gatekeeper kinases with submicromolar potency. We validated this system in vitro against Greatwall kinase (GWL), Aurora-A kinase, and cyclin-dependent kinase-1 and in cells using M110C-GWL-expressing mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These Cys-gatekeeper kinases were sensitive to ASDO2/6 inhibition but not AS kinase inhibitor 3MB-PP1 and vice versa. These compounds, with AS kinase inhibitors, have the potential to inhibit multiple AS kinases independently with applications in systems level and translational kinase research as well as the rational design of type II kinase inhibitors targeting endogenous kinases.

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