Trends in the Usage of Bidentate Phosphines as Ligands in Nickel Catalysis
journal contributionposted on 03.06.2020 by Andrew L. Clevenger, Ryan M. Stolley, Justis Aderibigbe, Janis Louie
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A critically important process in catalysis is the formation of an active catalyst from the combination of a metal precursor and a ligand, as the efficacy of this reaction governs the amount of active catalyst. This Review is a comprehensive overview of reactions catalyzed by nickel and an added bidentate phosphine, focusing on the steps transforming the combination of precatalyst and ligand into an active catalyst and the potential effects of this transformation on nickel catalysis. Reactions covered include common cross-coupling reactions, such as Suzuki, Heck, Kumada, and Negishi couplings, addition reactions, cycloadditions, C–H functionalizations, polymerizations, hydrogenations, and reductive couplings, among others. Overall, the most widely used nickel precatalyst with free bidentate phosphines is Ni(cod)2, which accounts for ∼50% of the reports surveyed, distantly followed by Ni(acac)2 and Ni(OAc)2, which account for ∼10% each. By compiling the reports of these reactions, we have calculated statistics of the usage and efficacy of each ligand with Ni(cod)2 and other nickel sources. The most common bidentate phosphines are simple, relatively inexpensive ligands, such as DPPE, DCPE, DPPP, and DPPB, along with others with more complex backbones, such as DPPF and Xantphos. The use of expensive chiral phosphines is more scattered, but the most common ligands include BINAP, Me-Duphos, Josiphos, and related analogs.