Transient Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of a Light-Driven Sodium-Ion-Pump Rhodopsin from Indibacter alkaliphilus
journal contributionposted on 2017-04-19, 00:00 authored by Kousuke Kajimoto, Takashi Kikukawa, Hiroki Nakashima, Haruki Yamaryo, Yuta Saito, Tomotsumi Fujisawa, Makoto Demura, Masashi Unno
Sodium-ion-pump rhodopsin (NaR) is a microbial rhodopsin that transports Na+ during its photocycle. Here we explore the photocycle mechanism of NaR from Indibacter alkaliphilus with transient absorption and transient resonance Raman spectroscopy. The transient absorption data indicate that the photocycle of NaR is K (545 nm) → L (490 nm)/M (420 nm) → O1 (590 nm) → O2 (560 nm) → NaR, where the L and M are formed as equilibrium states. The presence of K, L, M, and O intermediates was confirmed by the resonance Raman spectra with 442 and 532 nm excitation. The main component of the transient resonance Raman spectra was due to L which contains a 13-cis retinal protonated Schiff base. The presence of an enhanced hydrogen out-of-plane band as well as its sensitivity to the H/D exchange indicate that the retinal chromophore is distorted near the Schiff base region in L. Moreover, the retinal Schiff base of the L state forms a hydrogen bond that is stronger than that of the dark state. These observations are consistent with a Na+ pumping mechanism that involves a proton transfer from the retinal Schiff base to a key aspartate residue (Asp116 in Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2) in the L/M states.