American Chemical Society
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Transformation from Cu2–xS Nanodisks to Cu2–xS@CuInS2 Heteronanodisks via Cation Exchange

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journal contribution
posted on 2016-05-09, 00:00 authored by Seungyeol Lee, Seungmin Baek, Joong Pill Park, Ju Hyun Park, Dae Yeon Hwang, Sang Kyu Kwak, Sang-Wook Kim
Cationic-exchange methods allow for the fabrication of metastable phases or shapes, which are impossible to obtain with conventional synthetic colloidal methods. Here, we present the systematic fabrication of heteronanostructured (HNS) Cu2–xS@CuInS2 nanodisks via a cationic-exchange reaction between Cu and In atoms. The indium–trioctylphosphine complex favorably attacks the lateral (16 0 0) plane of the roxbyite Cu2–xS hexagon. We explain the phenomena by estimating the formation energy of vacancies and the heat of reaction required to exchange three Cu atoms with an In atom via density functional theory calculations. In an experiment, a decrease in the amount of trioctylphosphine surfactant slows the reaction rate and allows for the formation of a lateral heterojunction structure of nanoplatelets. We analyze the exact structures of these materials using scanning transmission electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, we demonstrate that our heteronanodisk can be an intermediate for different HNS materials; for example, adding gold precursors to a Cu2–xS@CuInS2 nanodisk results in a AuS@CuInS2 nanodisk via an additional cationic reaction between Cu ions and Au ions.