Toxicity and Metabolic Fate of the Fungicide Carbendazim in the Typical Freshwater Diatom Navicula Species
journal contributionposted on 29.05.2019, 00:00 by Tengda Ding, Wen Li, Juying Li
Fungicides are frequently detected in natural water and have gained increasing attention as a result of their potential toxicity to non-target aquatic organisms. Carbendazim (CAR), a commonly used fungicide, was selected to explore its toxicity and biodegradation in a typical freshwater diatom Navicula sp. Results showed that the growth of Navicula sp. was inhibited by CAR, with a 24 h EC50 value of 2.18 mg L–1. Although the algal growth rate was recovered after 72 h of exposure, the chlorophyll a content remained significantly decreased when the concentration of CAR was above 0.5 mg L–1. Moreover, Navicula sp. had a negative effect on the removal of CAR, and the acute toxicity by CAR was likely due to its rapid accumulation in algal cells. Mass spectrometric data revealed the transformation products of CAR from hydroxylation, methylation, decarboxylation, demethylation, and deamination in algal cultures. These results provide a better understanding of the environmental risks of CAR in water and point to the need for additional studies on the potential adverse biological effects of its intermediates.