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TiO2 Nanocolumn Arrays for More Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells

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journal contribution
posted on 24.01.2020, 14:37 by Zhelu Hu, José Miguel García-Martín, Yajuan Li, Laurent Billot, Baoquan Sun, Fernando Fresno, Antonio García-Martín, María Ujué González, Lionel Aigouy, Zhuoying Chen
Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have attracted much attention due to their high power conversion efficiency (>25%) and low-cost fabrication. Yet, improvements are still needed for more stable and higher-performing solar cells. In this work, a series of TiO2 nanocolumn photonic structures have been intentionally fabricated on half of the compact TiO2-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by glancing angle deposition with magnetron sputtering, a method particularly suitable for industrial applications due to its high reliability and reduced cost when coating large areas. These vertically aligned nanocolumn arrays were then applied as the electron transport layer into triple-cation lead halide perovskite solar cells based on Cs0.05(FA0.83MA0.17)0.95Pb­(I0.83Br0.17)3. By comparison to solar cells built onto the same substrate without nanocolumns, the use of TiO2 nanocolumns can significantly enhance the power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells by 7% and prolong their shelf life. Here, detailed characterizations on the morphology and the spectroscopic aspects of the nanocolumns, their near-field and far-field optical properties, solar cells characteristics, as well as the charge transport properties provide mechanistic insights on how one-dimensional TiO2 nanocolumns affect the performance of perovskite halide solar cells in terms of charge transport, light harvesting, and stability, knowledge necessary for the future design of higher-performing and more stable perovskite solar cells.