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Thyroid Dysfunction Induced by Fungicide Famoxadone Exposure Contributes to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Mice: In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Studies
journal contributionposted on 2023-09-26, 04:29 authored by Shouchun Xiao, Jingna Cui, Aisong Chen, Haonan Hou, Jianing Yao, Yue Cao, Yaofeng Fang, Xueke Liu, Zhiqiang Zhou, Donghui Liu, Peng Wang
Thyroid dysfunction has become a serious public health problem, which is considered a trigger of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Pesticide exposure could contribute to thyroid dysfunction and NAFLD, but the relationship between these factors remains unclear. In this study, the effects of subchronic famoxadone exposure on thyroid and liver at no observed adverse effect level (NOEL) related concentrations were investigated using in vivo, in vitro, and in silico models. Famoxadone caused hepatic steatosis, lipid metabolism disorder, and liver oxidative stress and induced NAFLD in male mice. The suppression of hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation was the key factor of NAFLD, which was highly associated with hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis hormones disorder. Famoxadone disrupted thyroid hormone biosynthesis by causing thyroid follicle aberrations and abnormal HPT axis-related gene expression. In vitro studies confirmed that famoxadone inhibited the transport of thyroxine (T4) into hepatocytes and the conversion of T4 to triiodothyronine (T3). In silico studies verified that famoxadone interfered with the binding of thyroid hormones to proteins mediating thyroid hormone transport, conversion, and activation. This study comprehensively reported the association between NAFLD and thyroid dysfunction caused by famoxadone, providing new perspectives for the health risk evaluation of pesticides with a similar structure in mammals.
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