Three-Dimensional Topotactic Host Structure-Secured Ultrastable VP-CNO Composite Anodes for Long Lifespan Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Capacitors
journal contributionposted on 16.06.2020, 16:34 by Wenbo Cheng, Biao Wan, Shishuai Xu, Miaoxin Zhang, Rongguang Zeng, Zexin Liu, Chengwei Zhang, Fuxing Yin, Gongkai Wang, Huiyang Gou
Performance degradation of lithium/sodium-ion capacitors (LICs/SICs) mainly originates from anode pulverization, particularly the alloying and conversion types, and has spurred research for alternatives with an insertion mechanism. Three-dimensional (3D) topotactic host materials remain much unexplored compared to two-dimensional (2D) ones (graphite, etc.). Herein, vanadium monophosphide (VP) is designed as a 3D topotactic host anode. Ex situ electrochemical characterizations reveal that there are no phase changes during (de)intercalation, which follows the topotactic intercalation mechanism. Computational simulations also confirm the metallic feature and topotactic structure of VP with a spacious interstitial position for the accommodation of guest species. To boost the electrochemical performance, carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are coupled with 3D VP. Superior specific capacity and rate capability of VP-CNOs vs lithium/sodium can be delivered due to the fast ion diffusion nature. An exceptional capacity retention of above 86% is maintained after 20 000 cycles, benefitting from the topotactic intercalation process. The optimized LICs/SICs exhibit high energy/power densities and an ultrastable lifespan of 20 000 cycles, which outperform most of the state-of-the-art LICs and SICs, demonstrating the potential of VP-CNOs as insertion anodes. This exploration would draw attention with regard to insertion anodes with 3D topotactic host topology and provide new insights into anode selection for LICs/SICs.
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LICion diffusion natureSICtopotactic host materials20 000topotactic intercalation mechanismLong Lifespan LithiumThree-Dimensional Topotactic Host Structure-Secured Ultrastable VP-CNO Composite Anodes3 D topotactic host anode3 D VPinsertion anodestopotactic intercalation process20 000 cyclesSodium-Ion Capacitors Performance degradation3 D topotactic host topology