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Thionine Self-Assembled Structures on Graphene: Formation, Organization, and Doping

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journal contribution
posted on 24.05.2018, 00:00 by Thiago A. S. L. de Sousa, Thales F. D. Fernandes, Matheus J. S. Matos, Eduardo N. D. Araujo, Mario S. C. Mazzoni, Bernardo R. A. Neves, Flávio Plentz
The association of organic molecules with two-dimensional (2D) materials, creating hybrid systems with mutual influences, constitutes an important testbed for both basic science self-assembly studies and perspective applications. Following this concept, in this work, we show a rich phenomenology that is involved in the interaction of thionine with graphene, leading to a hybrid material formed by well-organized self-assembled structures atop graphene. This composite system is investigated by atomic force microscopy, electric transport measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and first principles calculations, which show (1) an interesting time evolution of thionine self-assembled structures atop graphene; (2) a highly oriented final molecular assembly (in accordance with the underlying graphene surface symmetry); and (3) a strong n-type doping effect introduced in graphene by thionine. The nature of the thionine–substrate interaction is further analyzed in experiments using mica as a polar substrate. The present results may help pave the way to achieve tailored 2D material hybrid devices via properly chosen molecular self-assembly processes.