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Thermoelectric Properties of Substoichiometric Electron Beam Patterned Bismuth Sulfide

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journal contribution
posted on 20.07.2020, 21:09 by Jose Recatala-Gomez, Hong Kuan Ng, Pawan Kumar, Ady Suwardi, Minrui Zheng, Mohamed Asbahi, Sudhiranjan Tripathy, Iris Nandhakumar, Mohammad S. M. Saifullah, Kedar Hippalgaonkar
Direct patterning of thermoelectric metal chalcogenides can be challenging and is normally constrained to certain geometries and sizes. Here we report the synthesis, characterization, and direct writing of sub-10 nm wide bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) using a single-source, spin-coatable, and electron-beam-sensitive bismuth­(III) ethylxanthate precursor. In order to increase the intrinsically low carrier concentration of pristine Bi2S3, we developed a self-doping methodology in which sulfur vacancies are manipulated by tuning the temperature during vacuum annealing, to produce an electron-rich thermoelectric material. We report a room-temperature electrical conductivity of 6 S m–1 and a Seebeck coefficient of −21.41 μV K–1 for a directly patterned, substoichiometric Bi2S3 thin film. We expect that our demonstration of directly writable thermoelectric films, with further optimization of structure and morphology, can be useful for on-chip applications.