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Theoretical Study of the Regioselectivity of the Interaction of 3‑Methyl-4-pyrimidone and 1‑Methyl-2-pyrimidone with Lewis Acids
journal contributionposted on 2012-08-23, 00:00 authored by Okuma Emile Kasende, Jules Tshishimbi Muya, Lies Broeckaert, Guido Maes, Paul Geerlings
A density functional theory (DFT) study is performed to determine the stability of the complexes formed between either the N or O site of 3-methyl-4-pyrimidone and 1-methyl-2-pyrimidone molecules and different ligands. The studied ligands are boron and alkali Lewis acids, namely, B(CH3)3, HB(CH3)2, H2B(CH3), BH3, H2BF, HBF2, BF3, Li+, Na+, and K+. The acids are divided into two groups according to their hardness. The reactivity predictions, according to the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) map and the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, are in agreement with the calculated relative stabilities. Our findings reveal a strong regioselectivity with borane and its derivatives preferring the nitrogen site in both pyrimidone isomers, while a preference for oxygen is observed for the alkali acids in the 3-methyl-4-pyrimidone molecule. The complexation of 1-methyl-2-pyrimidone with these hard alkali acids does not show any discrimination between the two sites due to the presence of a continuous delocalized density region between the nitrogen and the oxygen atoms. The preference of boron Lewis acids toward the N site is due to the stronger B–N bond as compared to the B–O bond. The influence of fluorine or methyl substitution on the boron atom is discussed through natural orbital analysis (NBO) concentrating on the overlap of the boron empty p-orbital with the F lone pairs and methyl hyperconjugation, respectively. The electrophilicity of the boron acids gives a good overall picture of the interaction capabilities with the Lewis base.