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The Immunoprobe Aggregation State is Central to Dipstick Immunoassay Performance

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journal contribution
posted on 21.07.2020, 14:35 by Delyan R. Hristov, Alyssa Jean Pimentel, Godwin Ujialele, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli
As new infectious disease outbreaks become more likely, it is important to be able to develop and deploy appropriate testing in time. Paper-based immunoassays are rapid, cheap, and easy to produce at scale and relatively user friendly but often suffer from low selectivity and sensitivity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of paper immunoassays may help improve and hasten development and therefore production and market availability. Here, we study how the behavior of nanoparticle–antibody immunoprobes in paper dipstick immunoassays is impacted by synthesis strategy and surface chemistry architecture. We conjugate gold nanoparticles to polyclonal anti-immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-zika NS1 antibodies by electrostatic adsorption and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and hydrazide (Hz) chemistries. The immunoprobes were used in paper immunoassays and the effective affinity for the antigen was quantified from the test line intensities, as well as the distribution of the immunoprobes throughout the strips. The results show that nanoparticle colloidal stability, both post synthesis and during antigen binding, is a key factor and affects immunoassay results and performance, often through reduction or loss of signal.