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The Crystal Structure of Human Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 2 Reveals the Atomic Basis for Distinct Roles in Antigen Processing

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posted on 10.01.2012, 00:00 authored by James R. Birtley, Emmanuel Saridakis, Efstratios Stratikos, Irene M. Mavridis
Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases ERAP1 and ERAP2 cooperate to trim a vast variety of antigenic peptide precursors to generate mature epitopes for binding to major histocompatibility class I molecules. We report here the first structure of ERAP2 determined at 3.08 Å by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of residual electron density, a lysine residue has been modeled in the active site of the enzyme; thus, the structure corresponds to an enzyme–product complex. The overall domain organization is highly similar to that of the recently determined structure of ERAP1 in its closed conformation. A large internal cavity adjacent to the catalytic site can accommodate large peptide substrates. The ERAP2 structure provides a structural explanation for the different peptide N-terminal specificities between ERAP1 and ERAP2 and suggests that such differences extend throughout the whole peptide sequence. A noncrystallographic dimer observed may constitute a model for a proposed ERAP1–ERAP2 heterodimer. Overall, the structure helps explain how two homologous aminopeptidases cooperate to process a large variety of sequences, a key property of their biological role.

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