American Chemical Society
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Tetrachlorovancomycin: Total Synthesis of a Designed Glycopeptide Antibiotic of Reduced Synthetic Complexity

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-09-18, 18:38 authored by Maxwell J. Moore, Pengjin Qin, Naoto Yamasaki, Xianhuang Zeng, D. Jamin Keith, Sunna Jung, Takumi Fukazawa, Katherine Graham-O’Regan, Zhi-Chen Wu, Shreyosree Chatterjee, Dale L. Boger
A technically straightforward total synthesis of a new class of vancomycin analogues of reduced synthetic complexity was developed that provided tetrachlorovancomycin (1, LLS = 15 steps, 15% overall yield) and its precursor aglycon 29 (nearly 20% overall yield). The class retains all the intricate vancomycin structural features that contribute to its target binding affinity and selectivity, maintains the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin, and achieves the simplification by an unusual addition, not removal, of benign substituents to the core structure. The modification, accomplished by addition of two aryl chloride substituents to provide 1, permitted a streamlined total synthesis of the new glycopeptide antibiotic class by removing the challenges associated with CD and DE ring system atropisomer stereochemical control. This also enabled their simultaneous and further-activated SNAr macrocyclizations that establish the tricyclic skeleton of 1. Key elements of the approach include catalyst-controlled diastereoselective formation of the AB biaryl axis of chirality (>30:1 dr), an essentially instantaneous macrolactamization of the AB ring system free of competitive epimerization (>30:1 dr), racemization free coupling of the E ring tetrapeptide, room temperature simultaneous CD and DE ring system cyclizations, a highly refined 4-step conversion of the cyclization product to the aglycon, and a protecting-group-free one-pot enzymatic glycosylation for disaccharide introduction. In addition to the antimicrobial evaluation of tetrachlorovancomycin (1), the preparation of key peripherally modified derivatives, which introduce independent and synergistic mechanisms of action, revealed their exceptional antimicrobial potency and provide the foundation for future use of this new class of synthetic glycopeptide analogues.