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Systematic Secretome Analyses of Rice Leaf and Seed Callus Suspension-Cultured Cells: Workflow Development and Establishment of High-Density Two-Dimensional Gel Reference Maps

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journal contribution
posted on 05.12.2008, 00:00 by Young-Ho Jung, Seung-Hee Jeong, So Hee Kim, Raksha Singh, Jae-eun Lee, Yoon-Seong Cho, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal, Nam-Soo Jwa
Secreted proteins control a multitude of biological and physiological processes in multicellular organisms such as plants. Identification of secreted proteins in reference plants like Arabidopsis and rice under normal growth conditions and adverse environmental conditions will help better understand the secretory pathways. Here, we have performed a systematic in planta and in vitro analyses of proteins secreted by rice leaves (in planta) and seed callus suspension-cultured cells (SCCs; in vitro), respectively, using a combination of biochemical and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) coupled with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Secreted proteins prepared from either leaves or SCCs medium were essentially free from contamination of intracellular proteins as judged by biochemical and Western blot analyses. 2-DGE analyses of secreted proteins collectively identified 222 protein spots with only 6 protein spots common to both in planta and in vitro derived data sets. Data were used to establish high-resolution and high-density 2-D gel reference maps for both in planta and in vitro secreted proteins. Identified proteins belonged to 11 (in planta) and 6 (in vitro) functional classes. Proteins involved in carbon metabolism (33%) and cell wall metabolism having plant defense mechanism (18%) were highly represented in the in planta secreted proteins accounting for 51% of total identified proteins, whereas proteins of cell wall metabolism having plant defense mechanism (64%) were predominant in the in vitro secreted proteins. Interestingly, secreted proteins possessing signal peptides were significantly lower in an in planta (27%) prepared secreted protein population than in vitro (76%) as predicted by SignalP prediction tool, implying the notion that plant might possess yet unidentified secretory pathway(s) in addition to the classical endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway. Taken together, this systematic study provides evidence for (i) significant difference in protein population secreted in planta and in vitro suggesting both approaches are complementary, (ii) identification of many novel and previously known secreted proteins, and (iii) the presence of large number of functionally diverse proteins secreted in planta and in vitro.