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Synthesis of Long-Chain Alkanoyl Benzenes by an Aluminum(III) Chloride-Catalyzed Destannylative Acylation Reaction

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journal contribution
posted on 21.06.2021, 20:05 by Max Roemer, Sinead T. Keaveney, Nicholas Proschogo
This paper describes the facile synthesis of haloaryl compounds with long-chain alkanoyl substituents by the destannylative acylation of haloaryls bearing tri-n-butyltin (Bu3Sn) substituents. The method allows the synthesis of many important synthons for novel functional materials in a highly efficient manner. The halo-tri-n-butyltin benzenes are obtained by the lithium–halogen exchange of commercially available bis-haloarenes and the subsequent reaction with Bu3SnCl. Under typical Friedel–Crafts conditions, i.e., the presence of an acid chloride and AlCl3, the haloaryls are acylated through destannylation. The reactions proceed fast (<5 min) at low temperatures and thus are compatible with aromatic halogen substituents. Furthermore, the method is applicable to para-, meta-, and ortho-substitution and larger systems, as demonstrated for biphenyls. The generated tin byproducts were efficiently removed by trapping with silica/KF filtration, and most long-chain haloaryls were obtained chromatography-free. Molecular structures of several products were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, and the crystal packing was investigated by mapping Hirshfeld surfaces onto individual molecules. A feasible reaction mechanism for the destannylative acylation reaction is proposed and supported through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT results in combination with NMR-scale control experiments unambiguously demonstrate the importance of the tin substituent as a leaving group, which enables the acylation.

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