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Synthesis of Isoxazole- and Oxazole-4-carboxylic Acids Derivatives by Controlled Isoxazole-Azirine-Isoxazole/Oxazole Isomerization

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journal contribution
posted on 07.11.2019, 18:05 by Anna V. Serebryannikova, Ekaterina E. Galenko, Mikhail S. Novikov, Alexander F. Khlebnikov
The first synthesis of isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid derivatives by domino isoxazole-isoxazole isomerization is reported. Fe­(II)-catalyzed isomerization of 4-acyl-5-methoxy-/5-aminoisoxazoles (dioxane, 105 °C) leads to the formation of isoxazole-4-carboxylic esters and amides in good yields. 4-Formyl-5-methoxyisoxazoles give methyl oxazole-4-carboxylates under the same reaction conditions. Fe­(II)-catalyzed isomerization of 4-acyl-5-methoxyisoxazoles under milder conditions (MeCN, 50 °C) allows the preparation of transient 2-acyl-2-(methoxycarbonyl)-2H-azirines. The azirines isomerize quantitatively either into isoxazoles under catalytic conditions (dioxane, 105 °C) or into oxazoles under noncatalytic thermolysis (o-dichlorobenzene, 170 °C). The mechanism of the isomerization and dependence of the reaction routes on substituents at starting isoxazole core and reaction conditions are discussed on the basis of DFT calculations.