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Synthesis of Hollow Biomineralized CaCO3–Polydopamine Nanoparticles for Multimodal Imaging-Guided Cancer Photodynamic Therapy with Reduced Skin Photosensitivity

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journal contribution
posted on 28.01.2018, 00:00 by Ziliang Dong, Liangzhu Feng, Yu Hao, Muchao Chen, Min Gao, Yu Chao, He Zhao, Wenwen Zhu, Jingjing Liu, Chao Liang, Qiao Zhang, Zhuang Liu
The development of activatable nanoplatforms to simultaneously improve diagnostic and therapeutic performances while reducing side effects is highly attractive for precision cancer medicine. Herein, we develop a one-pot, dopamine-mediated biomineralization method using a gas diffusion procedure to prepare calcium carbonate-polydopamine (CaCO3–PDA) composite hollow nanoparticles as a multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform. Because of the high sensitivity of such nanoparticles to pH, with rapid degradation under a slightly acidic environment, the photoactivity of the loaded photosensitizer, i.e., chlorin e6 (Ce6), which is quenched by PDA, is therefore increased within the tumor under reduced pH, showing recovered fluorescence and enhanced singlet oxygen generation. In addition, due to the strong affinity between metal ions and PDA, our nanoparticles can bind with various types of metal ions, conferring them with multimodal imaging capability. By utilizing pH-responsive multifunctional nanocarriers, effective in vivo antitumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be realized under the precise guidance of multimodal imaging. Interestingly, at normal physiological pH, our nanoparticles are quenched and show much lower phototoxicity to normal tissues, thus effectively reducing skin damage during PDT. Therefore, our work presents a unique type of biomineralized theranostic nanoparticles with inherent biocompatibility, multimodal imaging functionality, high antitumor PDT efficacy, and reduced skin phototoxicity.