Synthesis and Structure−Activity Relationships of Amide and Hydrazide Analogues of the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Antagonist N-(Piperidinyl)- 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716)
journal contributionposted on 18.05.2002, 00:00 by Ma. Elena Y. Francisco, Herbert H. Seltzman, Anne F. Gilliam, René A. Mitchell, Sharyl L. Rider, Roger G. Pertwee, Lesley A. Stevenson, Brian F. Thomas
Analogues of the biaryl pyrazole N-(piperidinyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716; 5) were synthesized to investigate the structure−activity relationship (SAR) of the aminopiperidine region. The structural modifications include the substitution of alkyl hydrazines, amines, and hydroxyalkylamines of varying lengths for the aminopiperidinyl moiety. Proximity and steric requirements at the aminopiperidine region were probed by the synthesis of analogues that substitute alkyl hydrazines of increasing chain length and branching. The corresponding amide analogues were compared to the hydrazides to determine the effect of the second nitrogen on receptor binding affinity. The N-cyclohexyl amide 14 represents a direct methine for nitrogen substitution for 5, reducing the potential for heteroatom interaction, while the morpholino analogue 15 adds the potential for an additional heteroatom interaction. The series of hydroxyalkyl amides of increasing chain length was synthesized to investigate the existence of additional receptor hydrogen binding sites. In displacement assays using the cannabinoid agonist [3H](1R,3R,4R)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-4-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexan-1-ol (CP 55 940; 2) or the antagonist [3H]5, 14 exhibited the highest CB1 affinity. In general, increasing the length and bulk of the substituent was associated with increased receptor affinity and efficacy (as measured in a guanosine 5‘-triphosphate-γ-[35S] assay). However, in most instances, receptor affinity and efficacy increases were no longer observed after a certain chain length was reached. A quantitative SAR study was carried out to characterize the pharmacophoric requirements of the aminopiperidine region. This model indicates that ligands that exceed 3 Å in length would have reduced potency and affinity with respect to 5 and that substituents with a positive charge density in the aminopiperidine region would be predicted to possess increased pharmacological activity.