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Synthesis, Characterization, and Utilization of a Lignin-Based Adsorbent for Effective Removal of Azo Dye from Aqueous Solution

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journal contribution
posted on 06.02.2020, 17:36 by Xianzhi Meng, Brent Scheidemantle, Mi Li, Yun-yan Wang, Xianhui Zhao, Miguel Toro-González, Priyanka Singh, Yunqiao Pu, Charles E. Wyman, Soydan Ozcan, Charles M. Cai, Arthur J. Ragauskas
How to effectively remove toxic dyes from the industrial wastewater using a green low-cost lignocellulose-based adsorbent, such as lignin, has become a topic of great interest but remains quite challenging. In this study, cosolvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF) pretreatment and Mannich reaction were combined to generate an aminated CELF lignin which is subsequently applied for removal of methylene blue and direct blue (DB) 1 dye from aqueous solution. 31P NMR was used to track the degree of amination, and an orthogonal design was applied to determine the relationship between the extent of amination and reaction parameters. The physicochemical, morphological, and thermal properties of the aminated CELF lignin were characterized to confirm the successful grafting of diethylenetriamine onto the lignin. The aminated CELF lignin proved to be an effective azo dye-adsorbent, demonstrating considerably enhanced dye decolorization, especially toward DB 1 dye (>90%). It had a maximum adsorption capacity of DB 1 dye of 502.7 mg/g, and the kinetic study suggested the adsorption process conformed to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The isotherm results also showed that the modified lignin-based adsorbent exhibited monolayer adsorption. The adsorbent properties were mainly attributed to the incorporated amine functionalities as well as the increased specific surface area of the aminated CELF lignin.